SOCIAL MARKETING TERM PROJECT
The Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Campaign
A comprehensive social marketing campaign to reduce unintended teenage pregnancy.
Overview and Situation Analysis
Information campaigns against teenage pregnancy in the Philippines is still working its way to find the best solution to provide significant information to the Filipino teens as well as to raise awareness regarding sexually transmitted diseases and stress the importance of sexual health.
Teenage pregnancy and policies in sexual health has evolved in previous years as much is understood about the causes and problems as well as the strategies implemented to help address them – for example, the RH Law (RA. 10354) and the controversial 2014 video campaign against teenage pregnancy of the country’s Department of Health.
The Present Situation
The World Health Organization reports that 16 million girls (15 to 19 years of age) give birth each year worldwide and 95% of which came from low and middle-income earners.
Among the six major economies in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Philippines has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy and is the only country where the rate is still increasing. (United Nations Population Fund)
Teenage mothers (% of women ages 15-19 who have had children or are currently pregnant) in the Philippines was reported at 9.90 in 2008 according to the World Bank.
The incidence of childbirth doubled over the past decade in the Philippines and premarital sex is on the rise for the youth. In 2002, 23.2% have already engaged in premarital sex, and in 2013, there was a staggering increase to 32% (around 6.2 million youths). The results from the 2013 National Demographic and Health survey showed that one in ten young Filipino women aged 15-19 years old is already a mother or is pregnant with her first child.
Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) is quickly becoming the ultimate issue of the generation in the Philippines as it is racing towards a national teenage pregnancy crisis. In the 2014 data of the Philippines Statistics Authority (PSA), 24 babies are being delivered by teenage mothers at an hourly rate. The 2014 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS) revealed that 14% of Filipino girls (15 to 19 years old) are pregnant or first-time mothers, more than twice the rate of the numbers in 2002.
The Cost to Individual and Society
- Teenage mothers are twice as likely to die during childbirth
- Teenage mothers are twice as likely not to finish school
- Teenage mothers have three times the rate of post-natal depression and an increased risk of poor mental health for 3 years after birth
- Almost 40% of teenage mothers have no qualifications
- Teenage mothers are three times more likely to be smoking throughout their pregnancy, and 50% less likely to engage in breastfeeding, with negative health consequences for the child
- The infant mortality rate for babies born to adolescent mothers is 60% higher
- Children of adolescent mothers have an increased risk of being born into poverty, have lower academic attainment, and are more likely to be unemployed
- A child born to a teenage mother is twice as likely to die before reaching the age of one
- 20% of teenage mothers are pregnant again before two years
- Risks of teenage pregnancy: malnutrition, inadequate prenatal care, abortion, fetal deaths, cervical cancer
- Risks for teenage mother: dependence on welfare, single parenthood, more likely to have more children sooner on a limited income, more likely to abuse or neglect child
- Risks for the baby: low birth weight and premature, school failure, mental retardation, insufficient healthcare, abuse and neglect, poverty and welfare dependence
The Role of Marketing and Campaigns implemented in the country
The increasing rate of teenage mothers calls out the need for better initiatives to inform, promote sexual health and prevent occurrences of unwanted pregnancies. Social Marketing can play a role in supporting new initiatives and amplifying its impact to society.
Public health information campaigns played an important role in decreasing teenage pregnancy rates and raising awareness in sexual health policies. In previous years, there were several strategies launched by the Department of Health (DOH) and some other active Non-Government organizations that were funded in giving awareness to sexual health issues and teenage pregnancy.
Campaigns to date have not been successful in changing the attitudes of the youth and there is little or no evidence of outcomes in ‘real’ behavior change.
In order to achieve the goals and objectives of this campaign, below are the environmental scanning and stakeholder analysis for the project.
Demographic Forces: Teenage pregnancy profiles are girls with ages between 15 to 19 years young, poor, with low educational attainment, and are rural-dwelling.
Economic Forces: High medical consultation fees, pre-natal checkups, and expensive contraceptives.
Physical Forces: Biological and emotional aspects to sex, raging hormonal response of teenagers, and increased stress levels
Political Forces: Public policies pertaining to Family planning and sexual health, and promotion of contraceptive use or natural family planning methods
Socio-Cultural Forces: curiosity or experimentation, peer pressure, family-related problems, glamorization of sex in media, and influence of liberal views on sex
Technological Forces: sex promotion on the internet, access to unfiltered videos, and mass media delivered to personal mobile devices
|16 to 19 years old
Lower to Middle
English and Tagalog
Only child/Maximum 3 siblings
|Engage in unprotected Pre-Marital Sex
Others believe in Sex after Marriage
Strong spiritual beliefs
Easily influenced by peers
High exposure to television or media
Does not smoke but drinks occasionally
|Concerned with health and appearance
Engage in unprotected pre-marital sex but does not want to get pregnant
Wants a healthy lifestyle
Enjoys going online in the evenings, visits social networking sites
Values time with a small group of friends rather than family
Primary Participants: The project is intended for teenagers, girls of child-bearing age, and young mothers.
Secondary Participants: The group has identified young mothers, health workers, teachers, religious leaders, and parents as participants who could motivate, teach, and influence the primary participants.
Tertiary Participants: The campaign will utilize NGOs that are advocating social health and decreasing rates of teenage pregnancies as tertiary participants.
The Strategic Plan
Most health campaigns in the country have focused on the prevention of the act of sex or sexual intercourse for teenagers, or encouraging the use of contraceptives applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to drive audiences to safer sexual behaviors.
Behavior change is the goal of organizations, governments, or communities whose task would be to intervene through good program design and implementations that produce the desired behavioral changes.
Social Cognitive Theory
This social marketing campaign identifies Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory as the underlying framework in the study. The theory proposes that people are driven by external forces and not by inner forces. The model shows that human functioning can be explained by three interacting elements: behavior, personal factors, and environmental factors. It is sometimes referred to as “reciprocal determinism.”
The environmental factors represent situational influences in which behavior is performed. Personal factors, on the other hand, include instincts, drives, traits, and other personal or inner motivational forces. There are many underlying processes in human learning and behavioral change.
There are several variables that could intervene in the process of behavior change. These are:
- Self-efficacy – a judgment of one’s ability to do the behavior
- Outcome expectations – a judgment of the consequences of a behavior will produce
- Self-control – the ability of an individual to control his or her behavior
- Reinforcements – elements that could increase or decrease the likelihood a behavior will continue
- Emotional coping – ability of an individual to cope with stimulus relating to emotions
- Observational learning – acquisition of behaviors be observing actions and outcomes from others’ behaviors
The theory is relevant to the study in order to increase the levels of self-efficacy of the targeted audience. It is important to provide resources and support to raise a person’s confidence. To raise self-efficacy in behavior change, it has been suggested to approach an individual in a series of small steps.
Shaping the environment may encourage behavior change. It may include providing opportunities for changes in the behavior, assistance with the changes, as well as offering social support. Recognition of environmental constraints that could deter behavioral change is important.
Behavior change is the common thread through all reproductive health programs. The programs or campaigns are designed to bring about positive behaviors that will improve an individual or community’s health status and long term outcomes.
This social marketing campaign employs the Information-Education-Communication (IEC) as its Conceptual framework, otherwise changed to “Behavior Change Communication” (BCC).
Behavior Change Communication uses the production of well-designed materials that could influence behavior. It includes a variety of interventions that are classified into three categories:
- Mass Media – radio, television, billboards, print material, and the internet
- Interpersonal Communication – client-provider/health-worker interaction and group presentations
- Community Mobilization
The Behavior Change Communication is a strategic communication and behavior change framework where communication is treated as an external factor that affects the other variables in the model.
Behavior Change Communication
Communication is designed to improve skills (identified as instruction), communication for removing environmental constraints (identified as advocacy), and communication to change ideational factors (identified as promotion). The framework or model specifies the how and why a particular communication affects intention and behavior indirectly through skills, ideation, and constraints in the environment.
Ideation change is a change in the way individuals perceive given practices or behaviors which is possible through “promotion.” The act of promoting has a cognitive, emotional, and social effect that influences a person’s intent to practice a certain behavior and to follow through. The “desired result” is the actual behavior in Behavior Change Communication.
The overall goal of this social marketing campaign is to act as a catalyst for change, creating a more open, positive, respectful and supportive outlet which interventions can happen.
To achieve the goal does not only mean raising awareness to new initiatives but to challenge the stigma that characterizes the attitudes towards teen sexual behavior. It is not only focused on young people but also the attitudes and behaviors of their parents, and stakeholders like the local health personnel. The identified groups should recognize the role that they can play in influencing behavior of the teens through counseling, advocacy, or instruction, to make a positive impact.
The following are the project objectives in order to achieve the overall aim:
- At the end of the social marketing campaign implementation, teenagers who are not yet sexually active should be able to verbalize their attitudes, knowledge, and skills in preventing teenage pregnancy and poor sexual health.
- After the implementation of the social marketing campaign, sexually active teenagers should be encouraged to enumerate protective behaviors such as contraceptive use that could make sex safer.
- The social marketing campaign aims to provide teenagers access to intensive support that combines both preventive and protective measures for good sexual health.
Social Marketing Thrusts
The social marketing thrusts in this campaign include the following elements:
Product: Posters which creates awareness on the consequences of engaging to pre-marital sex as well as the expenses of becoming a parent.
Price: The respondents will be asked for their valuable time to attend a seminar. Contraceptives will also be introduced which amounts to P450 – P750 per box or P350 for the injectable.
Place: Colleges and Universities such as Jocson College and Holy Angel University in Pampanga
Promotion: Posters will be placed all over the campus
Partnerships: College and Universities
Policy: To encourage students not to engage to pre-marital sex, otherwise, provide easy access to contraceptives. Colleges and Universities must agree on the introduction of contraceptives.
|Prevention Objective||Protection Objective||Intervention Objective|
|§ Knowledge and Understanding – focus on giving the audience the facts about sexual health and teenage pregnancy, clarifying myths and misconceptions that currently exists.
§ Communication and Negotiation – to promote more discussion between groups, parents and child, and encouraging them to discuss about sexual health.
|§ Contraceptive use
§ Access to condoms
§ Family Planning Methods
|§ Integrated Education and delivery of service – encourage engagements with individuals or groups of specialization|
Message to Communicate
Conveying specific messages to groups can help create a ‘ripple effect’ through the campaign. This will ensure that multiple messages will not become too fragmented.
The campaign strategy facilitates ‘visual analysis.’ It is based on the academic evidence that good communication materials are key preparatory behaviors and has resulted to good effects in several countries.
Better visual communication plays an important role in many parties including children and their parents, sexual partners, teenagers and their peers, health care professionals and their patients, which is important in eliciting a wide range of safer sexual attitudes and behaviors through posters and other visual aids or infographics.
The proposed sexual health campaign is promoting more exposure to visuals as a channel to safer sex and reduced teenage pregnancy occurrences.
- Tone: The tone of the message to the audience should be in a way that is non-erotic, grown-up, professional, matter of fact, honest, and respectful
- Interpretation: The campaign will feature first person and third person voices that are related to the general theme, things that are worth talking about to extract more attention from the audience.
For advocacy on The Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Campaign, target groups include politicians, schools, supporters and community.
For each target group requires its own specific approach:
- Politicians – focus on political choices
- Supporters – provide guidelines
- Schools and community – focus on essentials
The campaign will be networked with existing community-based groups to gain number of support as well as with the local health units to provide healthcare, contraceptives and preventative services.
It is important to educate people the outcomes of teen pregnancy and methods of prevention. This activity is generally for the campaign implementers to become equipped with the necessary background of the campaign to be transmitted to the community.
Small media – The campaign is generally delivered through campaign posters accessible on school bulletin boards and different social media platforms.
Interpersonal communication – This includes counseling, one-on-one education sessions, skills trainings, and presentations often targeted toward parents, teenagers, local government units and health workers.
Strategic Campaign Plan Matrix
|All||Establish plans and concepts for the campaign poster||Stop submitting to pre-marital sex
Priority on education
|Online collaboration tools|
|Beverly||Execution of planned concepts on several poster designs||Unique visual aids on anti-adolescent pregnancy campaigns||Sketching and page-layouting|
Operational Campaign Plan Matrix
|Pre-Campaign||Poster brainstorming, preparation and production||All||Online||Php2,500 for poster production|
|Campaign||Poster Distribution online and offline||All||Jocson College and Holy Angel University in Pampanga and Facebook||N/A|
|Post-Campaign||Evaluation of program||All||Jocson College and Holy Angel University in Pampanga and Facebook||N/A|
The Operational Plan
Discussion and planning of action steps were done through Facebook group conversations, text messages, and online collaboration tools.
|Topic Selection and Discussion||Teenage Pregnancy topic was chosen among several topics: Education, Malnutrition, Poverty Reduction, and Corruption||October 29 – November 3, 2015||All||Online|
|Identification of Social Marketing Scope||Discussion on how to go about the Social Marketing plan – from Environmental scanning to audience segmentation.||November 6 – November 9, 2015||All||Online|
|Strategies for Social Marketing Plan||Discussion on the possible marketing materials to influence responsible sexual health and reduction of teenage pregnancy.||November 11 – November 18, 2015||All||Online|
|Identification of Audience through a survey||40% of the respondents who took the Survey for Potential Mothers engage to Pre-Marital Sex. 75% of potential mothers are into unprotected sex. 25% use contraceptives such as condoms and injectables. They are aware of the consequences such as HIV, Getting Pregnant or getting addicted to the act but are not ready to get pregnant due to their goals in terms of school and family.
For the Survey to Young Parents. Nobody regrets becoming a young parent yet they mentioned that if they could turn back time, they won’t submit themselves to pre-marital sex. All find it hard to juggle life as a parent and a student. 20% are working too. 70% are getting support from their parents. 10% are supported by their partners.
|November 19 – November 20, 2015||Beverly||Jocson College and Holy Angel University in Pampanga|
|Creation of Marketing Posters||Conceptualization of various themes in the posters: baby, responsible sex, and teenage pregnancy awareness||November 16 – November 20, 2015||Beverly||N/A|
|Determining budget and costs of resources and materials production||Poster printing costs around Php120. There’s a need for 9 posters (3 copies of the 3 designs) in every school for maximum exposure.||November 23 – November 26, 2015||All||Online|
|Discussion of Monitoring and Evaluation methods||Surveys and Focus Group Discussions
Pre-test and post-tests
Internet use and media exposure evaluation
|November 28 – December 1, 2015||All||Online|
|Posting of posters in strategic areas of the school||Posters have been posted in the schools’ bulletin boards and special classroom boards.||December 2, 2015||Beverly||Jocson College and Holy Angel University in Pampanga|
|Distribution of online posters through Facebook||Posters in JPEG format have been uploaded online by students and other concerned parties.||December 2, 2015||All||Online|
|Evaluation of campaign||N/A||March 2, 2016||All||Jocson College and Holy Angel University in Pampanga and Facebook|
Strategic Campaign Plan
|Create first poster||Submit young. Commit younger!
Say No to Pre-marital sex. Say No to Teenage Pregnancy.
|Poster and Facebook photo upload|
|Create second poster||Wanted: Mommy!!!
One must be able to provide the following: Medication and Supplements, Consultation, Delivery, Childcare, Vaccinations, Cribs, Diapers, and other Baby Essentials, and Milk.
PS. “Get ready to be puked on, change my diapers, wake up 2x or 4x overnight, chase me all over the house, and get dirty when I throw my food on you.”
|Poster and Facebook photo upload|
|Create third poster||You think being in school sucks?
You’re supposed to be changing the world… not changing diapers.
|Poster and Facebook photo upload|
Monitoring and Evaluation
The Monitoring methods for the Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention campaign consist of the following:
Offline: Date of the start of the campaign, areas in which the campaign materials were placed, number of students who have been exposed to the poster in a month, and field observation reports regarding the poster campaign
Online: Date of the start of the campaign, number of people who have uploaded the poster, and monthly surveys on who has seen the poster in Facebook
Pre-test and Post-test
The Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention campaign will be evaluated through pre-test and post-tests to identify the target audiences’ knowledge base, beliefs, and behaviors. This evaluation method involves gathering data from the target audience utilizing a survey assessing their knowledge to the topic as the pre-test. After 3 months, a post-test will then be administered to the same target audience in order to compare the difference in their knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors, after exposure to the materials.
To test for the impact of the campaign, random members of the target audience will be selected to be interviewed. The data extracted from the pre-test and post-test as well as the interviews will provide insights to better future campaigns.
In order to determine the potency of the campaign, a second post-test shall be administered to the same group after 6 months of the campaign. The results will provide significant information regarding the effectiveness of the campaign over a period of time.
Internet use Evaluation
The Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention online campaign will be evaluated through measurement of likes, comments, and shares to a particular photo/poster. The spread of the photo will be identified using a reverse photo search tool available in the internet to identify the number of people who have uploaded the photo/poster, shared the photo/poster, or used the photo/poster to various websites.
An online poll will be made available to gauge the exposure of people to the campaign as well as evaluate the message reach.
Survey for Potential Mothers
Age : _______
Are you in a relationship?
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
Do you engage to Pre-Marital Sex?
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
Are you aware of the consequences of such act?
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
Can you name at least 2 possible consequences of Pre-Marital Sex?
By doing so, we assume that you are ready to become a parent? Why?
[ ] Yes, because _________________________________
[ ] No, because _________________________________
Survey for Teen Moms
Age : _________
How old were you when you got pregnant? ________
Do you regret being a teenage mom? Why?
[ ] Yes, because _________________________________
[ ] No, because __________________________________
Are you married with the father of your child?
[ ] Yes
[ ] No
[ ] Live – In
What are the challenges of being a young parent?
Where do you get financial support?
[ ] Work
[ ] Parents
[ ] Partner
Poster Design 1
Poster Design 2
Poster Design 3
National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (1997). Whatever happened to childhood? The problem of teenage pregnancy in the US. Washington DC
National Research Council, Growing up global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, 2005
Kincaid, D L., 2000. “Mass Media, Ideation, and Behavior: A Longitudinal Analysis of Contraceptive Change in the Philippines.”
Babalola, S., C. Vondrasek, J. Brown, and R. Trao. 2001. “The Impact of a Regional Family Planning Promotion Initiative in West Africa: Evidence from Cameroon.” International Family Planning Perspectives.
Bertrand, J.T. and D.L. Kincaid. 1996. Evaluating Information-Education-Communication (IEC) Programs for Family Planning and Reproductive Health. WG-IEC-03. University of North Carolina: Carolina Population Center.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Perry, C. L., Barnowski, T. & Parcel, G. S. (1990). How individuals, environments, and health behavior interact: Social learning theory. In K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis & B. K. Rimer (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory Research and Practice. San Francisco, CA.
Glanz, K., Lewis, F. M., & Rimers, B. K. (Eds.). (1990). Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Maynard, R.A., (ed.), Kids having kids: A Robin Hood Foundation Special Report on the costs of Adolescent Childbearing, New York: Robin Hood Foundation, 1996
(Published: December 6, 2015)